Realization of complex three-dimensional structures associated with solid organs through bioprinting approaches presents considerable technical challenges.
Advances in medical imaging and 3D printing technologies inspire exceptional interest in the fabrication of patient-specific biomaterial-based grafts to support craniofacial bone regeneration, especially in large volume defects.
Regeneration of large volumes of bone with biomaterial-based strategies remains a considerable challenge due in part to the need for vascular support of the regenerating tissue. The complexity of the challenge increases when the biomaterials serve as carriers of cell populations envisioned to promote bone formation.
Scaffold-based approaches for bone regeneration often incorporate biologically active factors to facilitate desired outcomes, including bone formation and vascularization. Literature over the years suggests that magnesium may present osteogenic and angiogenic potential in certain contexts, which might be leveraged in regenerative medicine approaches to bone tissue repair.
Large mandibular defects are clinically challenging to reconstruct due to the complex anatomy of the jaw and the limited availability of appropriate tissue for repair. We envision leveraging current advances in fabrication and biomaterials to create implantable devices that generate bone within the patients themselves suitable for their own specific anatomical pathology.
Volumetric muscle defects, such as those associated with cleft lip, often require multiple surgeries to repair, and the outcomes may be limited in terms of function and cosmesis. While tissue engineering strategies are being explored to facilitate repair of volumetric muscle defects in pre-clinical models, the models typically involve muscles in the extremities that do not reflect the delicate and complex architecture of craniofacial muscles.
Biomaterial-based approaches to facilitate alveolar bone regeneration remain a focus for investigation owing to the importance of bone of sufficient quantity and quality to support surgically placed dental implants.
Engineering strategies to facilitate regeneration of missing tissues commonly employ biomaterial scaffolds to guide tissue formation. Such approaches often seek to leverage bioresorbable scaffold materials to mitigate potential complications that might be associated with long-term retention of the implanted material.
Tissue engineering scaffolds increasingly seek to mimic complex biomolecular and mechanical gradients reflective of the tissue(s) of interest to guide regeneration, especially at complex tissue interfaces such as the osteochondral interface of the mandibular condyle.
Inadequate oxygen and nutrient diffusion in a porous scaffold often resulted in insufficient formation of branched vasculatures, which hindered bone regeneration. In this study, interconnected porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with different geometric designs of channels were fabricated and compared to discover the functionality of structure on facilitating nutrient diffusion for angiogenesis. In vitro fluid transportation and degradation of the scaffolds were performed. Cell infiltration, migration, and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on the scaffolds were carried out under both static and dynamic culture conditions.
Defects in the maxillofacial skeleton often present with a compromised wound bed and associated challenges to repair. However, pre-clinical investigation of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies seeking to facilitate repair of such defects commonly involves a healthy animal model presenting an ideal wound bed.
Emerging modular tissue engineering approaches seek to enable the generation of large-scale tissues from the assembly or fusion of small-scale cellular constructs generated in culture. While modular tissue engineering approaches present advantages with respect to maintaining cell viability in culture prior to assembly of the building blocks, generation of modular constructs with suitable mechanical properties for load-bearing bone regeneration presents a challenge.
The growth of the field of tissue engineering over the past several decades has been remarkable. While considerable investments continue to be placed in research and development for tissue engineering technologies, translation of the technologies to the clinic to effect patient care remains the ultimate objective.
Autograft bone serves as a standard option for bone regeneration in a variety of contexts in the craniomaxillofacial complex, due in part to the osteoinductivity generally presented by the graft tissue. Nonetheless, the limited availability of autograft bone, patient morbidity, and other considerations motivate the development of autograft extenders to reduce the volume required to promote regeneration in bony defects.
Tissue engineering is based on the interaction between stem cells, biomaterials and factors delivered in biological niches. Oral tissues have been found to be rich in stem cells from different sources: Stem cells from oral cavity are easily harvestable and have shown a great plasticity towards the main lineages, specifically towards bone tissues.
The potential impacts of 3D printing in medicine appear to be remarkable, but regulatory pathways associated with the clinical translation of devices and products produced through 3D printing struggle to maintain pace with the rapidly evolving technologies.
Tissue engineered cartilage substitutes, which induce the process of endochondral ossification, represent a regenerative strategy for bone defect healing. Such constructs typically consist of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) forming a cartilage template in vitro, which can be implanted to stimulate bone formation in vivo.
Adult mouse skeletal stem cells in the jaw revert to a more developmentally flexible state when called upon to regenerate large portions of bone and tissue, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
In patients with compromised health, bone repair and remodeling present a clinical challenge for orthopedic surgeons, with the most common complication being non-union. Treatment of bone non-union is critical in preventing progressive deformity, relieving persistent pain and subsequently achieving a total functional recovery.
Regenerative surgical procedures have long been considered a suitable method for restoring lost periodontal structure and functional attachment. But how did the concept develop? And what can we expect in the future?
Vascularization is essential for tissue regeneration. Despite extensive efforts in the past decades, sufficient and rapid vascularization remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Many studies have shown that the addition of channels in a porous scaffold can provide the ability to promote cell growth and rapid vascularization, thus leading to better outcomes in new tissue formation.
The goal of a surgical procedure aimed at treating multiple recessions is to achieve complete root coverage that blends with the surrounding soft-tissue and ensures long-term stability with a sulcus depth no greater than 2 mm. The current, most commonly used techniques for treating multi-tooth recessions can be divided into two groups:
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a developing field in materials science and bioengineering, in which researchers aim to engineer an ideal, bioinspired material to promote assisted bone repair.
Tooth loss is a significant health issue currently affecting millions of people worldwide.
One important aim of the field of tissue engineering (TE) is to replace degenerated tissues with cells and scaffolds that restore tissue function and mediate regeneration.
Mexico has become a groundbreaker in regenerative medical science. And one institution is touting innovative ways to reduce the prohibitive costs of the therapy. CGTN’s Alasdair Baverstock reports.
The species of simple animal known as Planaria has acted as a model organism in the disciplines of tissue regeneration science for quite a while now.
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have developed and successfully tested a new surgical technique that could be a critical step toward using bioengineered cartilage to treat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction.
Jazayeri, H. E.; Dorafshar, A. H. “Engineering a New Era: Will Autogenous Tissue Remain the Gold Standard for Head and Neck Reconstruction?”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, published online: 2018
Facial skin injuries can present exceptional challenges for wound repair considering the complexities of the contours of the face and facial movements. Bioengineered skin substitutes have emerged in recent years that can serve as a barrier against microorganisms while promoting wound healing, yet none to-date present geometries tailored to match patient-specific facial contours. Seol et al. report in a recent article a proof-of-concept study exploring the fabrication of a customized, 3D-printed, multi-layered, bioengineered construct for facial skin regeneration, which they call a “BioMask.” A scaled-down human face-shaped construct was 3D-printed based on computed tomography scan data and comprised a porous polyurethane structural support layer, a hydrogel layer laden with human keratinocytes, and a hydrogel layer laden with human fibroblasts. The constructs were applied in an innovative model of wound healing developed in a nude mouse and demonstrated regeneration of skin presenting epidermis and dermis layers and minimal wound contracture over 14 days. The article demonstrates proof-of-concept of applying medical imaging in concert with 3D bioprinting techniques to fabricate customized constructs supportive of facial skin wound repair.
The study of robotics has been known to yield benefits for humans in a variety of ways; however, a new research study suggests possible benefits but on a different scale.
A major hurdle to using neural stem cells derived from genetically different donors to replace damaged or destroyed tissues, such as in a spinal cord injury, has been the persistent rejection of the introduced material (cells), necessitating the use of complex drugs and techniques to suppress the host’s immune response.
Cardiovascular regeneration focuses on repairing or replacing damaged or senescent cardiac and vascular tissue.
Despite the promising neuro-regenerative capacities of stem cells, there is currently no licensed stem cell-based product in the repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. Here, we explored the potential use of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as the only cellular component in 3D bio-printed scaffold-free neural constructs that were transplantable to bridge facial nerve defects in rats.
Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function.
A Purdue University-affiliated startup has devised a way to map arteries in the roof of a person’s mouth to help avoid complications and improve outcomes in oral surgery.
Geistlich invested heavily to develop its latest product, the 3D collagen matrix Geistlich Fibro-Gide®. Dr. Terance Hart, Director Research, and Dr. Mark Spilker, Chief Scientific Officer, talk about innovation, research pathways and strategic collaborations.
Robert E. Guldberg, the incoming executive director of the Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, will introduce the campus community to his research in an upcoming public talk.
Newly identified stem cells in the lung that multiply rapidly after a pulmonary injury may offer an opportunity for innovative future treatments that harness the body’s ability to regenerate.
Fujifilm Global and Takeda Oncology recently announced a collaboration to develop regenerative medicine therapies for the treatment of heart failure using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes.
Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been used for tissue engineering approaches and can be used to regenerate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissues.
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life.
Non-genetic induction of somatic cells into neural crest stem-like cells (NCSCs) is promising for potential cell-based therapies for post-traumatic peripheral nerve regeneration.
A method of making bioink droplets to stick to each other using an enzyme driven crosslinking method has been developed by researchers from Osaka University
Since 2010 global demographics have revealed an ever-increasing elderly population.
Aged patients, who tend to present with partial or total tooth loss, inevitably need more complex and higher quality dental rehabilitation, including dental implant therapy.
Regenerative surgical procedures have long been considered a suitable method for restoring lost periodontal structure and functional attachment.
The evolution of head and neck reconstruction dates to approximately 1000 BC, when Sushruta, the father of Indian surgery, introduced the
the theory for arguably the first regional pedicled flap in rhinoplasty. Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Persian, and Indian civilizations expanded on this medical marvel by contributing to discoveries in human anatomy, whereas Roman physicians described possibilities for local tissue rearrangements for nearly all segments of the face.
Jaw Surgery is performed to correct various problems related to the jaw, facial appearance, and other maxillofacial problems.
Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has demonstrated extraordinary potential in bone formation, its clinical applications require supraphysiological milligram-level doses that increase postoperative inflammation and inappropriate adipogenesis, resulting in well-documented life threatening cervical swelling and cyst-like bone formation.
Bone grafts currently used for the treatment of large bone defect or asymmetry in oral and maxillofacial region include autologous, allogeneic, and artificial bones. Although artificial bone is free from the concerns of donor site morbidity, limitation of volume, disease transmission, and ethical issues, it lacks osteogenic and osteoinductive activities
Rapid bioorthogonal reactivity can be induced by controllable, catalytic stimuli using air as the oxidant.
Successful regeneration of the cranium in patients suffering from cranial bone defects is an integral step to restore craniofacial function.
Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge.
Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a multivariate disease with poorly understood mechanisms, but recently 30+ different mutations have been suggested to contribute to disease pathology.
Reconstruction of large mandibular defects is clinically challenging due to the need for donor tissue of appropriate shape and volume to facilitate high fidelity repair.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-studied biological process that takes place during embryogenesis, carcinogenesis and tissue fibrosis.
We have studied bone regenerative medicine to employ autologous bone marrow stromal cells and platelet-rich plasma as tissue-engineered osteogenic materials. Although our studies have been successful to a certain degree, advancing to clinical applications, the strategy for practical use of this method has to be changed, because the environment surrounding bone regenerative medicine has evolved dramatically.
In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the cartilage on the condylar head displays a unique ultrastructure with a dense layer of type I collagen in the superficial zone, different from hyaline cartilage in other joints.