Advances in medical imaging and 3D printing technologies inspire exceptional interest in the fabrication of patient-specific biomaterial-based grafts to support craniofacial bone regeneration, especially in large volume defects.
However, challenges encountered in bridging the margins in large bony defects using 3D-printed scaffolds in pre-clinical models motivate the investigation of supplementation of the osteoconductivity of the scaffold with incorporated bioactive agents. A recent article by Lopez et al. reports the pre-clinical investigation of customized 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds releasing dipyridamole, an antithrombotic agent, as an osteoinductive agent in critically-sized mandibular defects in a rabbit model. Significantly more bone formation was observed with delivery of dipyridamole relative to control scaffolds over the course of 8 weeks of implantation. The study suggests the potential of dipyridamole to be applied in promoting osteogenesis in approaches for craniofacial bone regeneration.