Tissue engineering is based on the interaction between stem cells, biomaterials and factors delivered in biological niches.
Oral tissues have been found to be rich in stem cells from different sources: Stem cells from oral cavity are easily harvestable and have shown a great plasticity towards the main lineages, specifically towards bone tissues. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the most investigated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from dental tissues, however, the oral cavity hosts several other stem cell lineages that have also been reported to be a good alternative in bone tissue engineering. In particular, the newly discovered population of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human periapical inflamed cysts (hPCy-MSCs) have showed very promising properties, including high plasticity toward bone, vascular and neural phenotypes.
Spagnuolo, Gianrico et al. “Commitment of Oral-Derived Stem Cells in Dental and Maxillofacial Applications.” Dentistry journal vol. 6,4 72. 13 Dec. 2018, doi:10.3390/dj6040072