Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has demonstrated extraordinary potential in bone formation, its clinical applications require supraphysiological milligram-level doses that increase postoperative inflammation and inappropriate adipogenesis, resulting in well-documented life threatening cervical swelling and cyst-like bone formation.
Recent promising alternative biomolecular strategies are toward promoting pro-osteogenic activity of BMP2 while simultaneously suppressing its adverse effects. Here, we demonstrated that small molecular phenamil synergized osteogenesis and bone formation with BMP2 in a rat critical size mandibular defect model. Moreover, we successfully elicited the BMP2 adverse outcomes (i.e. adipogenesis and inflammation) in the mandibular defect by applying high dose BMP2.