Biomaterial-based approaches to facilitate alveolar bone regeneration remain a focus for investigation owing to the importance of bone of sufficient quantity and quality to support surgically placed dental implants.
A recent article by Boda et al. reports the application of segments of mineralized electrospun polymeric nanofibers for the local delivery of a calcium-binding BMP-2-mimicking peptide sequence (E7-domain-conjugated BMP-2 peptide) to support bone formation in a rat maxillary alveolar bone defect model. The study found greater bone formation 4 weeks post-operatively upon implantation of the peptide-loaded biomaterial segments, relative to empty defects, as indicated by radiographic and histological outcomes. The authors suggest that the mineralized nanofiber segments may be incorporated into injectable formulations and might serve as an extracellular-matrix mimicking alternative to microsphere-based biomaterials for local delivery of biologically active factors for bone regeneration.