Autografts and allografts are commonly applied in the surgical treatment of craniofacial bone defects, but limitations associated with each have motivated the development of alloplastic graft materials capable of supporting bone tissue regeneration.
Synthetic biomaterials, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), present a range of advantages for application as scaffolds for bone regeneration, including degradability, biocompatibility, and tunable material properties. While synthetic scaffolds may be effective in conducting bone regeneration, addition of osteoinductive factors may be warranted to promote bone formation. A recent article by Witek et al. investigated the effect of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) incorporation into PLGA scaffolds on bone regeneration in a translational sheep mandibular defect model. L-PRF contains a variety of cytokines and growth factors known to facilitate bone and wound healing. The authors loaded the L-PRF into porous PLGA scaffold using a two-step method that involved immersion of the scaffold in L-PRF transudate followed by addition of fibrin, which polymerized within the pores to form a gel. Histomorphometric analysis showed extensive bone formation in the L-PRF-loaded group and in a non-loaded scaffold control group, with statistically significantly more bone regeneration observed with the addition of L-PRF. Overall, the article suggests the use of autologous and easy to process L-PRF as a potential additive to synthetic biomaterial scaffolds to promote craniofacial bone tissue regeneration.
The effect of platelet-rich fibrin exudate addition to porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold in bone healing: An in vivo study.
Witek L, Tian H, Tovar N, Torroni A, Neiva R, Gil LF, Coelho PG. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2019. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.34478. [Epub ahead of print]