Many research studies aim to develop biomaterial scaffolds for craniofacial bone tissue regeneration.
Successful osteointegration of a scaffold depends upon adequate mechanical fixation to mitigate micromovement between the biomaterial and the surrounding bone tissue. In some cases, materials shrink upon scaffold fabrication, increasing the gap with the surrounding tissue and exacerbating the challenge of scaffold fixation. A recent article by Kwon et al. investigated the effect of inhibition of micromovement of a ceramic-based scaffold along axial and radial axes on osteointegration in a rat calvarial defect model. Specifically, the authors applied Gelfoam® around the edge of the defect prior to placement of a porous polydopamine-laced hydroxyapatite collagen calcium silicate scaffold. After closure of the periosteum, a titanium mesh was placed superior to the scaffold, and the skin was closed. The Gelfoam® and titanium mesh were envisioned to mitigate micromovement of the scaffold in the radial and axial directions, respectively. A control group received scaffolds without fixation. The authors report increased osteointegration of the scaffolds with fixation relative to those without fixation, as evaluated by micro-computed tomography, histology, and push-out tests after 12 weeks of implantation. Overall, the article demonstrates the importance of mechanical fixation of a scaffold toward supporting bone formation and osteointegration in bone tissue engineering applications.
The Inhibition of Radial and Axial Micromovement of Bone Scaffold with Gelfoam® and Titanium Mesh Fixation and Its Effects on Osteointegration.
Kwon J, Lee DJ, Kocher M, Kim YI, Wu TJ, Whitley J, Ko CC. Methods Protoc. 2019;2(1):E20.